Free Linux Distributions

Free / open source distributions of the Linux operating system

Free Linux Distributions / Operating Systems

The well-known open source Linux operating system is available in many packages, known as distributions. These distributions include not only the core of the OS, the Linux kernel, but a host of other utilities, software applications and desktop environment that make the entire platform useful. Most, if not all, of the distributions can be used as a desktop environment as well as a server.

Installation of Linux has come a long way from the early 1990s, when I installed my first Linux system from a set of boot/root floppies (don't ask). Nowadays, all you have to do is to download the ISO of the distribution, burn it to a CD or DVD, reboot the computer with the new CD, and follow the instructions. If you don't have a DVD or CD drive, you can also create a bootable USB drive from the ISO.

The Linux installers usually have their own ability to install beside an existing operating system like Windows (if you wish), or alternatively, replace the system entirely. If you want to dual-boot two operating systems, like Windows and Linux, you can either rely on the Linux installers to manage the partitions, or, as some hard-core computer enthusiasts prefer, use your own partition managers to shrink your existing operating system's partition to make space for Linux. My recommendation is that you also back up or image your system before you do any major overhaul so that if you don't like what you get, you can always go back to your original working system.

If you only want to try the operating system, and don't want to repartition your hard disk yet, you may also want to check the Free Linux LiveCD Distributions - Live Linux on a CD or DVD which allow you to boot Linux directly from a CD/DVD and use it immediately without installing. Alternatively, you can also install Linux into a PC emulator or virtual machine. Be aware that these solutions tend to make Linux run slower than usual. Don't worry, it won't be like that when you install Linux for real on your computer.

Explanation of some terms: unlike Windows and macOS, where the operating system and its user interface (the desktop that you see when you start the machine) are inextricably intertwined, Linux comes with a variety of user interfaces to choose from. Two of the most famous ones are KDE and GNOME. Both are free. Some prefer KDE, others GNOME. Most of the major distributions have both GNOME and KDE versions, allowing you to pick one. Choose whichever you like. Before you ask: if you can't decide, and want to know what I normally choose, I usually install KDE, probably because it works the way I expect things to and seems to be more configurable.

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Free Linux Distros

Rocky Linux New

Rocky Linux is designed to be 100% bug-for-bug compatible with RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux). It is created by the original founder of CentOS (before they were bought by Red Hat and turned into a test bed for future releases). The site provides ISO downloads for Intel x86 64-bit and ARM64 (the full DVD ISOs, a minimal ISO, and a boot ISO).

AlmaLinux New

AlmaLinux is a binary compatible fork of RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux). For those who used CentOS before they became a test-bed for potential future RHEL releases, AlmaLinux provides migration scripts to facilitate your transition to the system. ISOs for Intel x86 64-bit are provided.


OpenSUSE, formerly SUSE, is a well known Linux distribution with a good support for a variety of hardware. You can download either the DVD or CD versions of Linux, GNOME or KDE versions, 32-bit, 64-bit or Power-PC versions, etc. Like all Linux distributions, it comes with a huge assortment of software, including office suites, multimedia players, image editors, C/C++ compiler, programming tools, text editors, etc. It's too long to list.

Linux Mint

Linux Mint is based on the Debian and Ubuntu distributions (see elsewhere on this page). It aims to work out of the box with full multimedia support. The main Linux Mint version may include proprietary components (such as Adobe Flash support), while the Linux Mint Debian Edition is purely based on Debian (and thus only has open source components). You have the option of using Cinnamon, MATE, KDE or Xfce for the desktop user interface. Although this is a popular distribution, it is not without controvery, especially with regards its security.


Fedora, which began its life as a Red Hat product, is a free Linux distribution offering versions for Intel processors (both 32-bit and 64-bit) as well as PPC. Both GNOME and KDE desktops are provided on the same distributin and you can switch between them. Fedora, by policy, tends to have less built-in support for multimedia types (like MP3) and file systems (like NTFS), although you can always download the necessary support files (free) from third-party sites.


Debian is probably the mother of a large number of distributions, or in lingo of the Linux aficionados, the upstream distribution on which many distributions (like the Ubuntu family) base theirs. It is very well regarded, but has a reputation of being extremely slow to update its software to the latest version in its stable release.


The Ubuntu distribution, from Canonical, is a popular Linux distribution. The current version uses the GNOME desktop. WARNING: if you search for your own files on your computer using the default search facility on this distribution, it will automatically submit your search query to Canonical's servers which will return some shopping links in the results as well. (Update: to quote from Richard Stallman's article on the GNU website, "the spyware search facility is now disabled by default" from Ubuntu 16.04 onwards.)

Kubuntu, Xubuntu and Ubuntu MATE

Both Kubuntu, Xubuntu and Ubuntu MATE are Linux distributions that are derived in some part from Ubuntu, except that Kubuntu uses the KDE desktop, Xubuntu the Xfce desktop and Ubuntu MATE the MATE desktop, instead of GNOME. These three distributions are put together by volunteers (and not Canonical), that is, they are "community developed".


Edubuntu comes from the Ubuntu/Kubuntu family of Linux distributions. It is a distro specifically designed for "young human beings". It is intended for educational use, and at this time of writing, aimed at classroom use. The distribution includes many school related applications such as fun educational software like the KDE Edutainment Suite, Gcompris (a collection of kindergarten activity programs), Tux4Kids (painting, maths and typing), Schooltool calendar, OpenOffice (office suite with wordprocessor, spreadsheet, presentation), etc. Like Ubuntu and Kubuntu, you can either download it or order it. Both the Enterprise release and the normal releases are free. (The Enterprise version will be supported for a longer period, but the normal version has the latest versions of software.)


Slackware was one of the earliest Linux distributions around. It can run on a wide variety of hardware, including the old 486 machines right up to the modern machines.


CentOS Stream is a distribution that Red Hat uses to test software that will eventually make it into their commercial offering. (The older version, the "CentOS Linux" mentioned on its site, has its end of life on 31 December 2021, and will be discontinued from that point.)

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